An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure or a set of rules designed to solve a specific problem or accomplish a particular task. It is well-defined sequence of computational or mathematical.

An algorithm can be thought of as the detailed instructions for carrying out some operation. A computer program has to follow a sequence of exact instructions to accomplish this.

Algorithms are used in various fields, such as computer science, data analysis, artificial intelligence, and cryptography, to solve problems, make decisions, process information, and optimize processes.

Examples of algorithms include Bubble Sort, Binary Search, Dijkstra's Algorithm, QuickSort, Merge Sort, Depth-First Search (DFS), Breadth-First Search (BFS), Linear Regression, and Neural Networks.

Algorithms provide a systematic approach to problem-solving, enabling complex tasks. It designed to learn from data, improving their performance over time & enhancing decision-making capabilities.

Techniques of algorithms include divide and conquer, dynamic programming, greedy algorithms, backtracking, randomization, recursive and iterative programming, among others.